Posts Tagged ‘Spain’

Spanish Judge Accused of Establishing the History of Atrocities committed by the Franco Dictatorship

May 22, 2010
by Ignacio Ramonet
Global Research, May 19, 2010
IPS – 2010-05-01
For the dead man here abandoned, build him a tomb.” Sophocles, Antigone (442 A.D.)

PARIS — “Senseless”, “astounding” , “unheard of” … The world press, human rights associations, and the finest international jurists can’t get over it. Why is the Spanish judicial system, which has done so much in recent years to punish and prevent crimes against humanity in many parts of the world, bringing charges against Baltasar Garzon, the judge who best symbolises the contemporary paradigm of applying universal justice?

The international media know well the merits of the “superjudge”: his transcendental role in the arrest of Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet in London in 1998; his denunciation of the atrocities committed by the military in Argentina, Guatemala, and by other Latin American dictatorships; his efforts to dismantle the GAL (Antiterrorist Liberation Groups, formed by the Spanish government to fight the ETA Basque separatists) and prosecute socialist premier Felipe Gonzalez; his opposition to the invasion of Iraq in 2003; and even his recent trip to Honduras to warn the coup participants that crimes against humanity are imprescriptible.

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Spain: Judge Garzón faces prosecution for investigating Franco-era crimes

September 22, 2009
By Paul Mitchell, wsws.org, Sep 22, 2009

Investigative Judge Baltasar Garzón has appeared in court as a result of a prosecution brought by far-right organisations for investigating crimes committed during the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. Garzón, who is a candidate for president of the International Criminal Court and a Nobel Peace Prize, could be suspended or lose his job if the case proceeds.

Millions who wanted some sort of justice for the hundreds of thousands of Franco’s victims were shown once again the extent of the power and influence still wielded by the extreme right 30 years after the so-called “transition to democracy.”

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Stop the US torture ship

May 30, 2009
Morning Star Online, Friday 29 May 2009
by Adrian Roberts
The notorious USS Bataan, which has held prisoners including John Walker Lindh, David Hicks and Ibn Al-Sheikh Al-Libi, docking in Mallorca on Thursday morning.

British human rights campaigners Reprieve have urged the Spanish authorities to board and search US torture ship USS Bataan after it moored at the Palma de Mallorca holiday resort.

Reprieve said on Friday that the USS Bataan is one of the US government’s most infamous “floating prisons” and will remain at the island until Saturday.

At least nine prisoners including John Walker Lindh, David Hicks and Ibn Al-Sheikh Al-Libi, who recently died in mysterious circumstances in Libyan custody, are confirmed to have been held aboard the USS Bataan.

Reprieve pointed out that, in January 2002, Mr Al-Libi was flown to the ship, which was then cruising the northern Arabian Sea, before his interrogation began.

From there, he was rendered to Egypt where he was forced under torture to confess that al-Qaida and Saddam Hussein were in league on weapons of mass destruction.

Details regarding the operation of prison ships have emerged through a number of sources, including the US military and other administration officials, the Council of Europe, various parliamentary bodies and journalists, as well as the testimonies of prisoners themselves.

Reprieve investigations also suggest that a further 15 ships have been used to hold prisoners beyond the rule of law since 2001. Prisoners are interrogated aboard the vessels and then rendered to other, often undisclosed, locations.

A former prisoner told Reprieve: “One of my fellow prisoners in Guantanamo was at sea on an American ship before coming to Guantanamo. He was in the cage next to me. He told me that there were about 50 other prisoners on the ship.

“They were all closed off in the bottom of the ship. The prisoner commented to me that it was like something you see on TV. The people held on the ship were beaten even more severely than in Guantanamo.”

Reprieve investigator Clara Gutteridge said: “Ships have been used by the US to hold terror suspects illegally since the days of president Clinton, so it would be no surprise if this practice continues under Obama.

“The US and Spanish governments, as well as the EU, must urgently reveal what this ship is doing on European territory.”

Reprieve director Clive Stafford Smith added: “The arrival of USS Bataan should ring alarm bells in any law-abiding country. The Spanish authorities are duty-bound to board and search the ship for missing prisoners.”

Mr Stafford Smith has also pointed out that the US chooses ships to try to keep their misconduct as far as possible from the prying eyes of the media and lawyers.

“By its own admission, the US government is currently detaining at least 26,000 people without trial in secret prisons and information suggests up to 80,000 have been through the system since 2001,” he said.

“The US government must show a commitment to rights and basic humanity by immediately revealing who these people are, where they are and what has been done to them.”

Spain investigates what America should

April 7, 2009

By Marjorie Cohn | , April 6, 2009

A Spanish court has initiated criminal proceedings against six former officials of the Bush administration. John Yoo, Jay Bybee, David Addington, Alberto Gonzales, William Haynes and Douglas Feith may face charges in Spain for authorizing torture at Guantánamo Bay.

If arrest warrants are issued, Spain and any of the other 24 countries that are parties to European extradition conventions could arrest these six men when they travel abroad.

Does Spain have the authority to prosecute Americans for crimes that didn’t take place on Spanish soil?

The answer is yes. It’s called “universal jurisdiction.” Universal jurisdiction is a well-established theory that countries, including the United States, have used for many years to investigate and prosecute foreign nationals for crimes that shock the conscience of the global community. It provides a critical legal tool to hold accountable those who commit crimes against the law of nations, including war crimes and crimes against humanity. Without universal jurisdiction, many of the most notorious criminals would go free. Countries that have used this as a basis to prosecute the most serious of crimes should be commended for their courage. They help to create a just world in which we all seek to live.

Israel used universal jurisdiction to prosecute, convict and execute Adolph Eichmann for his crimes during the Holocaust, even they had no direct relationship with Israel.

A federal court in Miami recently convicted Chuckie Taylor, son of the former Liberian president, of torture that occurred in Liberia. A U.S. court sentenced Taylor to 97 years in prison in January.

Universal jurisdiction complements, but doesn’t supersede, national prosecutions. So if the United States were investigating the Bush officials, other countries would refrain from doing so.

When the United States ratified the Convention Against Torture, it promised to extradite or prosecute those who commit, or are complicit in, the commission of torture.

President Obama, when asked whether he favored criminal investigations of Bush officials, replied, “My view is also that nobody’s above the law and, if there are clear instances of wrongdoing, that people should be prosecuted just like any ordinary citizen.”

“But,” he added, “generally speaking, I’m more interested in looking forward than I am in looking backward.” Preoccupied with the economy and two wars, Obama reportedly wants to wait before considering prosecutions that would invariably anger the GOP.

Evidence that Bush officials set a policy that led to the torture of prisoners at Guantánamo continues to emerge.

According to ABC News, Gonzales met with other officials in the White House and authorized torture, including waterboarding.

The Office of Professional Responsibility, which reports to the U.S. attorney general, drafted a report that excoriates Yoo and Bybee for writing the infamous torture memos. Haynes, Addington and Feith participated in decisions that led to torture. The release of additional graphic torture memos by the U.S. Department of Justice is imminent.

It is the responsibility of the United States to investigate allegations of torture. Almost two-thirds of respondents to a USA Today/Gallup Poll favor investigations of the Bush team for torture and warrantless wiretapping. Nearly four in 10 support criminal investigations.

Former Navy General Counsel Alberto Mora told Congress, “There are serving U.S. flag-rank officers who maintain that the first and second identifiable causes of U.S. combat deaths in Iraq – as judged by their effectiveness in recruiting insurgent fighters into combat – are, respectively the symbols of Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo.” Providing impunity to those who ordered the torture will be the third recruiting tool.

If the United States refuses to investigate now, it will be more likely that some future administration will repeat this scenario. The use of torture should be purged from our system, much like we eradicated slavery.

Marjorie Cohn is a professor at Thomas Jefferson School of Law and President of the National Lawyers Guild. She is the author of Cowboy Republic: Six Ways the Bush Gang Has Defied the Law and co-author of Rules of Disengagement: The Politics and Honor of Military Dissent (with Kathleen Gilberd). Her articles are archived at http://www.marjoriecohn.com (The views expressed in this article are solely those of the writer; she is not acting on behalf of the National Lawyers Guild or Thomas Jefferson School of Law)

Spanish judge accuses six top Bush officials of torture

March 29, 2009

Legal moves may force Obama’s government into starting a new inquiry into abuses at Guantánamo Bay and Abu Ghraib

Criminal proceedings have begun in Spain against six senior officials in the Bush administration for the use of torture against detainees in Guantánamo Bay. Baltasar Garzón, the counter-terrorism judge whose prosecution of General Augusto Pinochet led to his arrest in Britain in 1998, has referred the case to the chief prosecutor before deciding whether to proceed.

The case is bound to threaten Spain’s relations with the new administration in Washington, but Gonzalo Boyé, one of the four lawyers who wrote the lawsuit, said the prosecutor would have little choice under Spanish law but to approve the prosecution.

“The only route of escape the prosecutor might have is to ask whether there is ongoing process in the US against these people,” Boyé told the Observer. “This case will go ahead. It will be against the law not to go ahead.”

The officials named in the case include the most senior legal minds in the Bush administration. They are: Alberto Gonzales, a former White House counsel and attorney general; David Addington, former vice-president Dick Cheney’s chief of staff; Douglas Feith, who was under-secretary of defence; William Haynes, formerly the Pentagon’s general counsel; and John Yoo and Jay Bybee, who were both senior justice department legal advisers.

Court documents say that, without their legal advice in a series of internal administration memos, “it would have been impossible to structure a legal framework that supported what happened [in Guantánamo]”.

Boyé predicted that Garzón would issue subpoenas in the next two weeks, summoning the six former officials to present evidence: “If I were them, I would search for a good lawyer.”

If Garzón decided to go further and issued arrest warrants against the six, it would mean they would risk detention and extradition if they travelled outside the US. It would also present President Barack Obama with a serious dilemma. He would have either to open proceedings against the accused or tackle an extradition request from Spain.

Obama administration officials have confirmed that they believe torture was committed by American interrogators. The president has not ruled out a criminal inquiry, but has signalled he is reluctant to do so for political reasons.

“Obviously we’re going to be looking at past practices, and I don’t believe that anybody is above the law,” Obama said in January. “But my orientation’s going to be to move forward.”

Philippe Sands, whose book Torture Team first made the case against the Bush lawyers and which Boyé said was instrumental in formulating the Spanish case, said yesterday: “What this does is force the Obama administration to come to terms with the fact that torture has happened and to decide, sooner rather than later, whether it is going to criminally investigate. If it decides not to investigate, then inevitably the Garzón investigation, and no doubt many others, will be given the green light.”

Germany’s federal prosecutor was asked in November 2006 to pursue a case against Donald Rumsfeld, the former defence secretary, Gonzales and other officials for abuses committed in Guantánamo Bay and Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. But the prosecutor declined on the grounds that the issue should be investigated in the US.

Legal observers say the Spanish lawsuit has a better chance of ending in charges. The high court, on which Garzón sits, has more leeway than the German prosecutor to seek “universal jurisdiction”.

The lawsuit also points to a direct link with Spain, as six Spaniards were held at Guantánamo and are argued to have suffered directly from the Bush administration’s departure from international law. Unlike the German lawsuit, the Spanish case is aimed at second-tier figures, advisers to Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld, with the aim of being less politically explosive.

The lawsuit claimed the six former aides “participated actively and decisively in the creation, approval and execution of a judicial framework that allowed for the deprivation of fundamental rights of a large number of prisoners, the implementation of new interrogation techniques including torture, the legal cover for the treatment of those prisoners, the protection of the people who participated in illegal tortures and, above all, the establishment of impunity for all the government workers, military personnel, doctors and others who participated in the detention centre at Guantánamo”.

“All the accused are members of what they themselves called the ‘war council’,” court documents allege. “This group met almost weekly either in Gonzales’s or Haynes’s offices.”

In a now notorious legal opinion signed in August 2002, Yoo and Bybee argued that torture occurred only when pain was inflicted “equivalent in intensity to the pain accompanying serious physical injury, such as organ failure, impairment of bodily function, or even death”.

Another key document cited in the Spanish case is a November 2002 “action memo” written by Haynes, in which he recommends that Rumsfeld give “blanket approval” to 15 forms of aggressive interrogation, including stress positions, isolation, hooding, 20-hour interrogations and nudity. Rumsfeld approved the document.

The 1984 UN Convention against Torture, signed and ratified by the US, requires states to investigate allegations of torture committed on their territory or by their nationals, or extradite them to stand trial elsewhere.

Last week, Britain’s attorney general, Lady Scotland, launched a criminal investigation into MI5 complicity in the torture of Binyam Mohamed, a British resident held in Guantánamo.

The Obama administration has so far avoided taking similar steps. But the possibility of US prosecutions was brought closer by a report by the Senate armed services committee at the end of last year, which found: “The abuse of detainees in US custody cannot simply be attributed to the actions of ‘a few bad apples’ acting on their own. The fact is that senior officials in the United States government solicited information on how to use aggressive techniques, redefined the law to create the appearance of their legality, and authorised their use against detainees.”

None of the six former officials could be reached for comment yesterday. Meanwhile, Vijay Padmanabhan, a former state department lawyer, said the creation of the Guantánamo Bay detention camp was “one of the worst over-reactions of the Bush administration”.

A Forgotten Genocide

December 18, 2008

By VICENTE NAVARRO | Counterpunch, Dec 16, 2008

A social movement has been growing in Spain, breaking the 30-year pact of silence on the enormous atrocities and genocide carried out during and after the fascist coup led by General Franco. The coup took place in 1936 with the active support of the Catholic Church and the Spanish Army, and made possible by the assistance of Hitler and Mussolini and the cowardice of the western democracies, including the U.S., which at that time did not dare to offend Hitler and Mussolini by sending arms to the democratically elected Spanish government. The coup was resisted, however, by the majority of Spain’s population, which is why it took three years for the fascists to succeed. They won by imposing extremely repressive measures on the population. Terror became an explicit policy of the new regime. General Franco and other generals spoke frequently of the need to kill everyone who had supported the Popular Front, the alliance of left-wing and center parties that had won by large majorities in the last elections in Spain. As part of that repression, more than 200,000 men and women were executed by the fascist regime, and another 200,000 died in the Army’s concentration camps and in the villages, subjected to hunger, disease, and other circumstances. And 114,266 people simply disappeared. They were killed by the Army and the fascist party, la Falange, and their bodies were abandoned or buried without being identified. These bodies were never found.

When democracy returned in 1978, an informal pact of silence was made – an agreement to cover over the enormous repression that had existed under the fascist dictator. The democratic transition took place under conditions that were highly favorable to the conservative forces that had controlled Francoist Spain. It became obvious to the leadership of the former fascist state, led by King Juan Carlos (appointed by General Franco), and Suarez, the head of the fascist movement (Movimiento Nacional), that the fascist regime could not continue as a dictatorship. It was a corrupt and highly unpopular apparatus, facing the largest labor agitation in Europe. In 1976, a critical year after the death of the dictator (the day he died, the country ran out of champagne), 2,085 workdays per 1,000 workers were lost to strikes (the average in Europe was 595 days). The dictator died in his bed, but the dictatorship died in the streets. The level of social agitation reached such a point that Franco’s appointed monarchy was in trouble, and the state leadership was forced to open itself up and establish a limited democracy, under the watchful eye of the Army (and the Church). The left was strong enough to force that opening, but it was not strong enough to break with the old state. The Amnesty Law was passed in 1977, which protected those who had committed politically motivated crimes (a law that was of much greater benefit to the right-wing than to the left-wing forces). The repression during the Franco years was enormous. Even in his bed just before he died (1975), Franco was signing death warrants for political prisoners.

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SPAIN: Only Banks Get Aid, Anti-Poverty Protesters Complain

October 20, 2008

By José Antonio Gurriarán | Inter-Press Service

MADRID, Oct 17 (IPS) – “We think it’s disgraceful that billions of dollars are available to bail out banks, and there is no money to eradicate poverty in the world,” said Marina Navarro, the spokeswoman for some 1,000 social organisations in Spain taking part in demonstrations against poverty between Friday and Sunday.

“We can understand the need for certain measures to address the economic crisis triggered by financial institutions in the United States, but we are completely opposed to that happening at the cost of an increase in hunger, poverty and inequality around the world,” the representative of the Spanish Alliance Against Poverty told IPS in Madrid.

The Alliance Against Poverty, made up of civil society organisations, trade unions, community associations, religious institutions and other groups, held demonstrations Friday to mark the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty and will continue mobilising over the weekend in response to the Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP), whose campaign slogan this year is “Stand Up and Take Action”.

From Oct. 17-19, millions of people around the world will literally stand up in protests and other events to demand that their governments make the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) top priority in budget allocation.

Taking 1990 levels as a baseline, the MDGs include a 50 percent reduction in extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; promotion of gender equality; reduction of child mortality by two-thirds; cutbacks in maternal mortality by three-quarters; combating the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring environmental sustainability; and developing a North-South global partnership for development.

“Far from meeting the MDGs, the number of poor people around the world has grown by 50 million, bringing the total to over 900 million,” said Navarro, referring to the first of the eight goals assumed by the international community in 2000, which have a 2015 deadline.

“I know it is a very harsh term, but I can’t find a better one: isn’t it disgraceful that it cost 700 billion dollars to bail out the banks in the United States, five times more than what the United Nations approved for reaching the MDGs?” asked Navarro.

In practically every large city and provincial capital in Spain, people have been mobilising over the last few days and will continue to do so through the weekend as part of the Alliance Against Poverty campaign, whose main aim is to call for compliance with the first MDG, against extreme poverty and hunger.

Developing regions, especially parts of Asia, have achieved steady economic growth and have seen the overall poverty rate shrink from 80 to 20 percent in the last 25 years. In addition, the proportion of children under five suffering from malnutrition dropped from 33 percent in 1996 to 26 percent in 2006.

“That’s true, and it should be highlighted as extraordinary progress,” said Navarro. “The case of Mozambique is also exemplary — one of the countries in the world with the greatest economic difficulties, which managed to reduce poverty to 10 percent of the population, thanks to active social policies and to donor countries like Germany, Spain, Britain and the Netherlands.”

But, she added, “half of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, and 1.4 billion people in poor regions around the world, still live on less than 1.25 dollars a day, according to the World Bank.”

In Spain’s large cities, hundreds of thousands of demonstrators are expected to stand up against poverty from Friday to Sunday.

In Friday’s enormous march in Madrid, signs carried by protesters also expressed concern about the unequal distribution of wealth, both between and within countries.

Another prominent activist who has been working hard over the last few days for the success of the campaign to sensitise Spanish society on the questions of poverty and hunger is Alliance Against Poverty spokesman David Ortiz, the only civil society representative to accompany Spain’s socialist Prime Minister José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero to the U.N. General Assembly in New York in late September.

“It is outrageous that as wealth grows around the world, so does inequality, and far from meeting the MDGs, we are getting farther and farther away from them in many cases,” Ortiz told IPS.

“In Latin America, the average income has gone up considerably in the last few years, but poverty has grown too, and there are intolerable problems of inequality that must be addressed,” he said.

“And in Africa, the number of people living in extreme poverty grows day by day, while a small elite becomes extremely wealthy. These are situations that are intolerable from a human standpoint,” he said.

The demonstrators taking part in the march in Madrid reminded the Zapatero administration of its pledge to increase official development aid to 0.7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) by 2012.

Ortiz said things have changed since the socialist party (PSOE) came to power in Spain in 2004, but argued that a much greater improvement is needed.

Under the previous government, of the centre-right Popular Party, “aid stood at 0.2 percent of GDP, and it has now grown to 0.4 percent and will apparently expand to 0.5 percent in the budget to be approved in the next few days,” he said.

“But we have to reach 0.7 percent of GDP as soon as possible, in Spain as well as in other countries, because the situation is critical, with millions of children and adults having their basic needs unmet or dying of hunger,” said Ortiz. (END/2008)

Family of Federico García Lorca agree to unearth Civil War secrets

September 19, 2008

The Times, UK, Sep 19, 2008

Laura Garcia Lorca with a bust of the poet

Laura García Lorca with a bust of the poet. The family has agreed to the dig

One of Spain’s most enduring literary mysteries could soon be solved after the descendants of Federico García Lorca dropped their longstanding objections to unearthing the mass grave where the poet’s remains are believed to lie.

“We will not oppose it,” said Laura García Lorca, the poet’s niece.

“Although we would prefer it weren’t done, we respect the wishes of the other parties involved.”

The fate of Spain’s most celebrated poet and playwright, who vanished 72 years ago, has exemplified divisions over new efforts to find out what happened to those killed during the Spanish Civil War and Franco’s subsequent dictatorship.

Last week, the families of several others thought to have been killed with Lorca asked a judge to allow the exhumation.

Until now the Lorca family preferred to let the matter lie, opposing efforts to determine exactly where he is buried. They said that they feared reopening old wounds and doubted it would provide any useful information.

But Lorca scholars said that the family’s decision not to oppose the exhumations would help to establish where he was buried and how he died.

“This is one of the happiest days of my life,” said the Irish author Ian Gibson, a leading Lorca scholar.

“Lorca is the most famous victim of the civil war. It’s a huge step in the right direction.” He added: “I think Lorca can be a symbol for reconciliation of the civil war.”

Judge Baltazar Garzón has yet to decide what to do with the site where Lorca is thought to be buried, in the author’s home province of Granada.

More than half a million people are thought to have been killed during the civil war of 1936-39, triggered by Franco’s armed uprising against the democratically elected Republican Government. After Franco’s victory, historians say that 50,000 Republicans were executed by Franco’s forces and tens of thousands locked up. His iron rule lasted until his death in 1975.

Although the Nationalist dead were honoured and given proper burials during Franco’s rule, Republican victims have lain in unmarked mass graves for seven decades.

After Franco’s death, political parties agreed to put the past behind them, granting a blanket amnesty for crimes committed under the dictator’s rule. For years, Spaniards subscribed to an unwritten “pact of silence” about the past in an attempt to let the country’s new democracy take root.

Last October José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, the Spanish Socialist Prime Minister, passed the Historical Memory Law that made the search for those who disappeared during Franco’s rule the responsibility of the Government. Until now individual associations have been leading efforts to exhume mass graves.

Moves to discover the fate of those who disappeared have sparked fury among Spanish conservatives, who say that history is being rewritten by those who lost the civil war. Right-wing Spaniards often accuse Mr Zapatero – whose grandfather was killed by a firing squad – of acting out of vengeance.

Judge Garzón, who became internationally famous when he ordered the arrest of the Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet in London, has begun to compile a census of those who were killed by Franco’s men – further inflaming conservative opinion.

Lorca was hauled out and shot after being denounced as a Republican, a Communist and a homosexual. He became a martyr to the Republican Left.

BURIED PAST

— More than 500,000 people were killed during the Spanish Civil War

— A total of 75,000 were executed by the Nationalists and 25,000 died from malnutrition

— During the siege of the Alcázar of Toledo in July 1936, only 1,000 Nationalist troops withstood 8,000 Republican troops for more than two months

Sources: Times archives; Hugh Thomas – The Spanish Civil War

Antisemitism and Islamophobia rising across Europe, survey finds

September 18, 2008

Antisemitism and Islamophobia are on the rise across Europe, according to a survey of global opinion released yesterday.

In contrast to the US and Britain where unfavourable opinion of Jews has been stable and low for several years at between 7 and 9%, the Pew Survey of Global Attitudes found that hostile attitudes to Jews were rising all across continental Europe from Russia and Poland in the east to Spain and France in the west.

The survey found that suspicion of Muslims in Europe was considerably higher than hostility to Jews, but that the increase in antisemitism had taken place much more rapidly.

“Great Britain stands out as the only European country included in the survey where there has not been a substantial increase in antisemitic attitudes,” the survey found.

Antisemitism has more than doubled in Spain over the past three years, with a rise from 21% to 46%, the survey of almost 25,000 people across 24 countries found, while more than one in three Poles and Russians also had unfavourable opinions of Jews.

In the same period antisemitism in Germany and France also rose – from 21% to 25% in Germany and from 12% to 20% in France among those saying they had unfavourable opinions of Jews.

“Opinions of Muslims in almost all of these countries was were more negative than are views of Jews,” analysts said. While Americans and Britons displayed the lowest levels of antisemitism, one in four in both countries were hostile to Muslims.

Such Islamophobia was lower than in the rest of Europe. More than half of Spaniards and half of Germans said that they did not like Muslims and the figures for Poland and France were 46% and 38% for those holding unfavourable opinions of Muslims.

People who were antisemitic were likely also to be Islamophobes. Prejudice was marked among older generations and appeared to be class based. People over 50 and of low education were more likely to be prejudiced.


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