The historical tragedy of Kashmir conflict goes way back in history. The political and cultural invasion started in 1585 with Mughal king, Akbar entrapping and imprisoning Yousuf Shah Chak, the king of Kashmir. Chak’s forces had earlier defeated the invading forces of King Akbar of India. Having failed in defeating the Kashmiri warriors outright he devised a devious scheme of controlling Kashmir by inviting the Kashmir ruler as a guest and then putting him in prison.
Then came the Afghan occupation at the end of Mughal rule in 1752. The Mughal and Afghan rule though an occupation, was not necessarily colonial in its modus operandi. Kashmir did enjoy a period of independence before the Sikh rule. Afghan rule was replaced by the Sikh occupation which put an end to that period of self rule.
Sikh rule was engineered through joint conspiracies of Ranjit Singh, a Sikh; Birbal, a Pundit from the Valley; and Ghulab Singh, a Dogra Hindu from Jammu.. The common cause among these parties was to end the Muslim rule in Jammu and Kashmir. After two failed attempts Sikhs ( under Ranjit Singh ) occupied Jammu and Kashmir in 1819.The Sikh rule was a tyranny that lasted 28 years and came to an end after its treacherous relationship with the British rulers.